A Brief Introduction to Classical Japanese
Adjectives classified as shiku-type in Classical Japanese correspond to Modern Japanese shii adjectives. That is, the Modern Japanese verb utsukushii (beautiful) is the Classical form is utsukushi.
The sample adjective in the paradigm below is tanoshi (= pleasant, fun, enjoyable).
Stem Form Ending Paradigm Example Mizenkei shikara / shiku tanoshika tanoshikarazu
(is not fun)
Renyôkei shikari / shiku tanoshikari tanoshikaritari
Shûshikei shi tanoshi tanoshi
Rentaikei shiki /shikaru tanoshiki tanoshiki hito
(a fun person)
Izenkei shikere tanoshikere tanoshikeredomo
(although it is fun )
Meireikei shikare tanoshikare tanoshikare!
Adjectives classified as ku-type in CJ correspond to MJ i adjectives. That is, the MJ verb takai (= tall, high) in its CJ form is takashi; the Modern atsui (= hot) is the CJ atsushi; the MJ wakai (= young) is the CJ wakashi; etc.
The sample adjective in the paradigm below is atsushi (= hot).
Stem Form Ending Paradigm Example Mizenkei kara / ku atsukara atsukarazu
(is not hot)
Renyôkei kari / ku atsukari atsukaritari
Shûshikei shi atsushi atsushi
Rentaikei ki /karu atsuki atsuki hito
(a hot day)
Izenkei kere atsukere atsukeredomo
(although it is hot )
Meireikei kare atsukare atsukare!
Keiyô-dôshi (Na-type adjectives)
There is an aditional adjective form, corresponding to the Modern Japanese na-type adjective (e.g., shizuka [quiet], which forms the apposative with the addition of "na", as in shizuka na hito= a quiet person). In fact, this form is a nominal with the addition of the copulative nari (ni ari) and there are very many adjectives in this category.
They may also appear under tari instead of nari (declining identically, with only a substitution of T for N), with the implication that tari is a temporary state and -nari is the default. (See the section on copulas for more details.)
The sample adjective in the paradigm below is atenari (= exalted).
Stem Form Ending Paradigm Example Mizenkei nara atenara atenarazu
(is not exalted)
Renyôkei nari / ni atenari atenaritari
Shûshikei nari atenari atenari
Rentaikei naru atenaru atenaru hito
(an exalted person)
Izenkei nare atenare atenaredomo
(although he is exalted )
Meireikei nare atenare atenare!
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